Throughout the 1990s, the Clinton Administration did take steps to try to curb the rise of terrorism. In January 1995, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12947. This order blocked financial interactions and business with “foreign terrorists that disrupt the Middle East peace process.” Later that same year, he signed Presidential Decision Directive 39, which declared, “It is the policy of the United States to deter, defeat and respond vigorously to all terrorist attacks on our territory and against our citizens, or facilities, whether they occur domestically, in international waters or airspace or on foreign territory.” In 1996, Congress took action with the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act. In addition to its controversial reforms in death-penalty cases, the AEDPA also criminalized financial contributions to terrorist organizations and allowed the use of secret evidence in deportations hearings. The law has been criticized in recent years by criminal justice reform advocates. That year Congress also passed the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act. It imposed sanctions on all business transactions with Iran and Libya in response for their sponsorship of terrorism. In 1998, President Clinton signed Presidential Decision Directive 62, “Protection Against Unconventional Threats to the Homeland and Americans Overseas.” The PDD named fighting terrorism as a national security priority and aimed to better facilitate cooperation between agencies in their counterterrorism efforts.
2006-1164-F Segment 1 This collection consists of records dealing with terrorist attacks during the Clinton Administration and the counterterrorism policies put in place in response to those attacks. These records include press briefings following the attack on the USS Cole and memos regarding security during the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta. Records dealing with aviation security include the final report to the President from the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security dated February 12, 1997, a list of accomplishments, and press guidance on increased security measures dated August 1995.
2006-1164-F Segment 2 This is the second segment of a collection consisting of records dealing with terrorist attacks during the Clinton Administration and the counterterrorism policies put in place in response to those attacks. The collection contains records from the files of the staff of the Transnational Threats Directorate in the National Security Council and includes memoranda, briefing papers, reports, notes, cables, emails, correspondence, and press material. Topics addressed include legislation, preparedness reports, aviation security, Presidential Decision Directives (PDDS) 39 and 62, and the investigations of the Oklahoma City bombing, the Riyadh bombing, the Khobar Towers bombing, the U.S.S. Cole bombing, and abductions of westerners.
2006-1164-F Segment 3 This is the third segment of a collection consisting of records dealing with terrorist attacks during the Clinton Administration and the counterterrorism policies put in place in response to those attacks. These records contain studies, legislative materials, memoranda, and reports regarding United States government preparedness for terrorist attacks, and response to those attacks. The documents address a wide variety of terrorism-related topics, including aviation security, Presidential Decision Directives 39 and 62, the 1986 La Belle Disco bombing, the 1988 Pan Am 103 bombing, the 1996 Khobar Towers Bombing, the TWA 800 disaster in 1996, the 1999 Egypt Air 990 crash, and the 1996 Summer Olympics.
2009-1438-F This collection consists of records concerning United States relations with Iran in 1993 and in 1995 through 1996. Due to serious differences over human rights and support for terrorist organizations, already strained relations between the U.S. and Iran remained poor throughout the 1990s. In 1993, President Clinton announced a strategy of the dual containment of Iraq and Iran. During the mid-1990s, the Administration pursued sanctions against Iran through the Executive Order and the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act. The records in this collection include memoranda, reports, briefings, correspondence, and press materials concerning Iran policy.
Presidential Decision Directive 39 U.S. Policy on Counterterrorism
Presidential Decision Directive 62 Protection Against Unconventional Threats to the Homeland and Americans Overseas